In the early 14th century, the hourglass in Europe spread. Oldest hourglasses were built of two individual glass flask, which were joined together at the neck. The sand trickled through a small opening made of metal, glass or wood of a piston in the other. The problem was that these materials degrade over time and the clock ran so fast. In 1750 it was technically possible to fully form the glass into an hourglass and so to dispense with this intermediate point. More accuracy could also be achieved through the use of purified, especially enhanced sand. Thus it could be ensured that the grains were all the same size and shape. Today it is mostly tiny glass beads are used as content for hourglasses.
Especially in the maritime field, the hourglass was very popular and could easily be used in comparison to the water meter. An important place where the hourglass was in the church. The Kanzeluhr, also called “viergläsrige Hourglass” should remind the priest during the sermon to the permitted duration of his speech.
The Invention of The Mechanical Clock
The first mechanical clocks originated in 13/14. Century. The development of the clock and measuring the time was advanced in Europe, especially from the monasteries. Regulated prayer and work schedules were desired. Knowing this came from China and the Islamic world. So that everyone could follow the time the wise men combined the moving by weight or by pendulum mechanism with regularly triggered chimes.Some centuries-oriented population alone at the time beats the church clocks – a first deep cut in social life.
In the 15th century watches could be made smaller by new materials and better tools. In addition, one built a housing around the movement, to protect it from dust and scratches. So clocks were affordable and popular also for ordinary citizens.
To 1636 Galileo Galilei invented the pendulum clock. The first model was built, however, only then by his son Vincenzo. Around the same time also the Dutch Christian Guygens dealt with the construction of a first pendulum clock. The decisive factor was the discovery that a pendulum – then genannt- also pendulum always takes the same length to cover to his way. This pendulum triggered an action with each pass at a certain point – the pointer automatically moved a piece before. In addition, the so-called uplift was important for the continuing accuracy of these watches. This meant that the pendulum in each pass a small impulse from the movement received, so that the vibration in spite of the developed friction was not bein pregnant. The accuracy of the movements was improved by a multiple.
Another milestone was the invention of the quartz clocks was in 1930. Simply stated: If a quartz crystal is energized, it begins to oscillate regularly and so replaced the pendulum. Although the first quartz clocks were as big as wardrobes, these were as accurate as ever. sent to a consumer until around 1970. Today, the watch does not become part of our everyday life. This technique found in most types of clocks application. Even watches use this scientific achievement.
Since 1969, the atomic clock is the most accurate way of measuring time. One uses for the natural oscillations of the cesium atom. The atomic clock has a deviation of one second in 1.7 million years.
Since 1990, the clocks are available, which operate on the principle of the quality wall clock defined by HBBLTD. However, the movements are equipped with radio receivers that synchronize their time regularly with an atomic clock. In Germany, the radio signal, which is also called DCF77 transmitted from Mainflingen near Frankfurt and has a range of almost 2000 kilometers.
We are curious about what we still expect in the history of timekeeping. Still many models are built daily and thought, based on the principle of “old clocks”. Also new versions of sundials rejoice in landscaped cottage gardens, water clocks splashing merrily to himself, For example for the Berlin Europa Center. It is called “Clock of Flowing Time” has been built in 1982 13 m high and. Hourglasses we find again and again in everyday use. Be it to brush your teeth or for sizing our sauna visit. And many fans will agree with shining eyes that there is nothing more wonderful than watching the uniform motion of a pendulum or Tooth and listen to the monotonous sounds. Is there more beautiful music to the ears than listening to the time during flow?
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